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ATIMA is a program developed at GSI which calculates various physical quantities characterizing the slowing-down of protons and heavy ions in matter for specific kinetic energies ranging from 1 keV/u to 450 GeV/u such as

  • stopping power
  • energy loss
  • energy-loss straggling
  • angular straggling
  • range
  • range straggling
  • beam parameters (magnetic rigidity, time-of-flight, velocity, etc.)

The program was written by Hans Geissel, Christoph Scheidenberger, Peter Malzacher and Jörg Kunzendorf.

ATIMA is available on LINUX at GSI /u/weick/Atima/JavaAtima

This can also be obtained for installation on your LINUX-PC, download Manual for using the Java shell program.

Note: ATIMA can be started from any directory. However, when ATIMA is invoked for the first time, it is recommended to create a new directory named e. g. atima and to invoke ATIMA from this directory. In case the output shall be saved on a file, it will be written on a new subdirectory atima.output, which will be created automatically.

ATIMA has been implemented into the program LISE providing a WINDOWS version, and there is a WWW interface to the precalculated ATIMA energy-loss table for Zt=1-92.


Unfortunately there is no article where the name ATIMA is mentioned but there are a number of articles where the predicted values are tested and confirmed and a series of others describing the method of calculation.


Above 30 MeV/u the stopping power is obtained from the theory by Lindhard and Soerensen (LS) [1] including the following corrections: the shell corrections [2], a Barkas term [3, 4] and the Fermi-density effect [5]. The projectiles are treated as point-like particles of a mean charge according to ref. [6]. Below 10 MeV/u an older version of Ziegler's SRIM [7] is used. In the intermediate energy range we interpolate between the two. The LS theory differs substantially for ions with high Z from the Bethe formula [8] it also considers the nuclear size effect for very relativistic ions.

Energy-loss straggling comes also from the LS-theory above 30 MeV/u. Below 10 MeV/u the theory of Firsov [9] and Hvelplund [10] is used.


Before the LS theory was established the significant differences in stopping-power and energy-loss straggling were observed [11,12] with the FRS at GSI. A more detailed discussion of the results one can find in refs. [13, 14]. Finally, a review article [15] combines all previous obtained results and even new data. The effects of charge-exchange straggling [16, 17] and more detailed charge dependence of dE/dx [18] were observed but are not yet included in ATIMA.


  1. J. Lindhard, A.H. Soerensen, Phys. Rev. A53 (1996) 2443.
  2. W.H. Barkas, M.J. Berger, NASA Report SP-3013 (1964).
  3. J.D. Jackson, R.L. McCarthy, Phys. Rev. B6 (1972) 4131.
  4. J. Lindhard, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 132 (1976) 1.
  5. R.M. Sternheimer and R.F. Peierls, Phys. Rev. B3 (1971) 3681.
  6. T.E. Pierce, M. Blann, Phys. Rev. 173 (1968) 390.
  7. J.F. Ziegler, J.B. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol.1, Pergamon Press (1985).
  8. H. Bethe, Z. Phys. 76 (1932) 293.
  9. O.B. Firsov, Sov. Phys. JETP 5 (1957) 1192.
  10. P. Hvelplund, Dan. Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 38 no.4 (1971).
  11. C. Scheidenberger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 50.
  12. C. Scheidenberger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3987.
  13. H. Geissel, C. Scheidenberger, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B136 (1998) 114.
  14. C. Scheidenberger, H. Geissel, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B135 (1998) 25.
  15. H. Geissel et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B195 (2002) 3.
  16. H. Weick et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 2725.
  17. H. Weick, A.H. Soerensen et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 193 (2002) 1.
  18. H. Weick et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164/165 (2000) 168.
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Topic revision: r1 - 2008-05-16, TillDettmering
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